Calcium in Belenus® fertilizer
The calcium content of the Belenus® fertiliser should also be mentioned. Calcium regulates the soil reaction and is an essential element for proper plant growth and development. Plants properly nourished with calcium, which controls the process of water photolysis, remain green and photosynthetically active for longer, which results in an increased yield. Its role during the mitotic division taking place in plant meristems should also be emphasized. These processes are particularly important in the development of the root system and the formation of root hairs, which is the basis for the construction of future plant yields. With properly developed roots, plants can take up larger amounts of macroelements (N, P, K, S and Mg) and microelements (Mo, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe, B) from the soil. Also, too low a level of Ca2+ blocks anaphasia, which inhibits plant growth. A good supply of calcium to bean (papilionaceous) plants is a necessary condition for the formation of root warts in which nitrogen fixation takes place (Kocoń 2012; Tab. 4). Calcium deficiency causes a disturbance in the growth of the maize pollen tube, and as a result, no fertilisation occurs – with the visible result being incomplete cobs. Calcium ions and other minerals are taken up by the roots together with water mainly on days when the leaf stomata are open. Calcium is taken up by plants, and after its incorporation into the central blade (calcium pectinate), it guarantees high strength of cell walls and maintains the integrity and consistency of tissues, thus indirectly contributing to increased resistance to pathogens and infections in dry conditions – e.g. acidic soil reaction resulting from abandoning soil liming may contribute to the occurrence of cabbage syphilis in rapeseed cultivation (in case of inappropriate alteration). The uptake of calcium ions (Ca2+) by plants is largely determined by genetic factors (Bousquet et al. 1981; Wójcik 1998; Marschner 2012). Monocotyledonous plants usually absorb less calcium than most dicotyledons (Loneragan et al. 1968; Loneragan and Snowball 1969; Islam et al. 1987; Wójcik 1998).
Magnesium in Belenus® fertilizer
The last extremely important macroelement contained in the Belenus granular fertiliser is magnesium, which stimulates the development of the root system. Without it, the basic plant physiological processes – such as mineral uptake and photosynthesis – are impossible. Being a component of chlorophyll, magnesium affects the regulation of plant photosynthesis processes and energy metabolism. It improves the use of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus absorbed by the plants, improves the quality of protein and reduces nitrate content. Magnesium taken up by plants has a beneficial effect on the transportation and accumulation of phosphorus in the seeds. Moreover, its content significantly affects the condition, resistance and development of plants. It also affects fat, protein and carbohydrate synthesis and takes part in the transportation of assimilates. The lack of magnesium during the autumn crop vegetation results in the inhibited growth of roots, and consequently, the entire plant. On the other hand, magnesium deficiency in spring makes it difficult for plants to absorb and use nitrogen. Magnesium deficiency causes poor plant growth, decreased resistance to diseases, delayed plant developmental phases and a reduced yield. The plants which are most susceptible to magnesium deficiency include cabbage (rape), root crops (sugar and fodder beets, potatoes), cereals (winter and spring), corn, broad beans and many vegetables, such as tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce, pumpkin, bell pepper and root vegetables.
- The essential macroelements contained in the Belenus® fertiliser play a significant role in ensuring plant yield, as indicated by their content in the primary and secondary yield of the most important crops (Tab. 1). The plants’ demand for sulphur is as follows:
- a) plants that require more than 50 kg S·ha-1 – rape, brassica, Liliaceae;
- b) plants whose requirements range from 20-50 kg S·ha-1 – leguminous, broad bean, sugar and fodder beet;
- c)plants with a requirement of less than 20 kg S·ha-1 – cereals, maize, grasses in the open field, potatoes (Grove 2010).
- The basis for assessing the need for fertiliser for sulphur of the cultivated plant is to determine its uptake, which is the product of the usable yield and the unit uptake (Tab. 2).
BELENUS Ecological Mineral Fertiliser – application and dosage
Depending on the needs of your crop, the fertiliser can be applied either pre-sowing (6-8 days before sowing) or post-sowing (at the latest 2 weeks before the expected start of the winter crop vegetation); mixing into the soil is recommended. For the selection of an appropriate dose, it is necessary to consider the target yield, soil type and its physical and chemical characteristics. The following dosage is indicative.